Tax System in Pakistan
Federal taxes in Pakistan like most of the taxation systems in the world are classified into two broad categories, viz., direct and indirect taxes. A broad description regarding the nature of administration of these taxes is explained below:
Direct taxes primarily comprise income tax, along with supplementary role of wealth tax. For the purpose of the charge of tax and the computation of total income.
all income is classified under the following heads:
All individuals, unregistered firms, associations of persons, etc., are liable to tax, at the rates ranging from 10 to 35 per cent.
Tax on Companies
All public companies (other than banking companies) incorporated in Pakistan are assessed for tax at corporate rate of 39%. However, the effective rate is likely to differ on account of allowances and exemptions related to industry, location, exports, etc.
Inter-Corporate Dividend Tax
Tax on the dividends received by a public company from a Pakistan company is payable at the rate of 5% and at the rate of 15% in case dividends are received by a foreign company. Inter-corporate dividends declared or distributed by power generation companies is subject to reduced rate of tax i.e., 7.5%. Other companies are taxed at the rate of 20%. Dividends paid to all non-company shareholders by the companies are subject to with holding tax of 10% which is treated as a full and final discharge of tax liability in respect of this source of income.
Treatment of Dividend Income
Dividend income received as below enjoys tax exemption, provided it does not exceed Rs. 10,000/-.
1: Dividend received by non-resident from the state enterprises Mutual Fund set by the Investment Corporation of Pakistan.
2: Dividends received from a domestic company out of income earned abroad provided it is engaged abroad exclusively in rendering technical services in accordance with an agreement approved by the Central Board of Revenue.
A person resident in Pakistan is entitled to a relief in tax on any income earned abroad, if such income has already been subjected to tax outside Pakistan. Proportionate relief is allowed on such income at an average rate of tax in Pakistan or abroad, whichever is lower.
Agreement for avoidance of double taxation
The Government of Pakistan has so far signed agreements to avoid double taxation with 39 countries including almost all the developed countries of the world. These agreements lay down the ceilings on tax rates applicable to different types of income arising in Pakistan. They also lay down some basic principles of taxation which cannot be modified unilaterally. The list of countries with which Pakistan has concluded tax treaties is given below:
Goods imported and exported from Pakistan are liable to rates of Customs duties as prescribed in Pakistan Customs Tariff. Customs duties in the form of import duties and export duties constitute about 37% of the total tax receipts. The rate structure of customs duty is determined by a large number of socio-economic factors. However, the general scheme envisages higher rates on luxury items as well as on less essential goods. The import tariff has been given an industrial bias by keeping the duties on industrial plants and machinery and raw material lower than those on consumer goods.
Central Excise duties are leviable on a limited number of goods produced or manufactured, and services provided or rendered in Pakistan. On most of the items Central Excise duty is charged on the basis of value or retail price. Some items are, however, chargeable to duty on the basis of weight or quantity. Classification of goods is done in accordance with the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding system which is being used all over the world. All exports are exempted from Central Excise Duty.
Sales Tax is levied at various stages of economic activity at the rate of 15 per cent on:
- All goods imported into Pakistan, payable by the importers;
- All supplies made in Pakistan by a registered person in the course of furtherance of any business carried on by him;
- There is an in-built system of input tax adjustment and a registered person can make adjustment of tax paid at earlier stages against the tax payable by him on his supplies. Thus the tax paid at any stage does not exceed 15% of the total sales price of the supplies.